I am working on the Juju project. Juju is all about orchestration of cloud services. Getting workloads running on clouds, and making sure they communicate with other workloads that they need to communicate with. Juju currently works with Amazon EC2, HP Cloud, Microsoft Azure, local LXC containers for testing, and Ubuntu's MAAS. More cloud providers are in development. Juju is also written in Go, so that was my entry point to the language.
My background is from Python and C++. I have written several logging libraries in the past, but always in C++ and with reasonably specific performance characteristics. One thing I really felt was missing with the standard library in Go was a good logging library. Features that I felt were pretty necessary were:
- A hierarchy of loggers
- Able to specify different logging levels for different loggers
- Loggers inherited the level of their parent if not explicitly set
- Multiple writers could be attached
- Defaults should "just work" for most cases
- Logging levels should be configurable easily
- The user shouldn't have to care about synchronization
BasicsThere is an example directory which demonstrates using loggo (albeit relatively trivially).
logger = loggo.GetLogger("project.area")
logger.Debugf("This is debug output.")
logger.Warningf("Some error: %v", err)
In juju, we normally create one logger for the module, and the dotted name normally reflects the module. This logger is then used by the other files in the module. Personally I would have preferred file local variables, but Go doesn't support that, not where they are private to the file, and as a convention, we use the variable name "logger".
Specifying logging levelsThere are two main ways to set the logging levels. The first is explicitly for a particular logger:
or chained calls:
Alternatively you can use a function to specify levels based on a string.
loggo.ConfigureLoggers("<root>=INFO; project=DEBUG; project.some.area=TRACE")
The ConfigureLoggers function parses the string and sets the logging levels for the loggers specified. This is an additive function. To reset logging back to the default (which happens to be "<root>=WARNING", you call
You can see a summary of the current logging levels with
Adding WritersA writer is defined using an interface. The default configuration is to have a "default" writer that writes to Stderr using the default formatter. Additional writers can be added using loggo.RegisterWriter and reset using loggo.ResetWriters. Named writers can be removed using loggo.RemoveWriter. Writers are registered with a severity level. Logging below that severity level are not written to that writer.
More to doI want to add a syslog writer, but the default syslog package for Go doesn't give the formatting I want. It has been suggested to me to just take a copy of the library implementation and make it work how I want.
I also want to add some filter-ability to the writers, both on the inclusive and exclusive, so you could say when registering a writer, "only show me messages from these modules", or "don't show messages from these other modules".
This library has been used in Juju for some time now, and fits with most our needs. For now at least.